Polyethylene terephthalate (short symbol PET) is a thermoplastic material which is produced by means of polycondensation and belongs to the family of polyesters. Natural polyesters have been known since 1830. The first synthetic polyester, glycerine phtalate, was used in the first world war as an impregnating agent.

PET today has manifold application fields and is used among other things for manufacturing plastic bottles (PET bottles), films and textile fibres. The worldwide production amounts to 40 million tons per year. PET is preferentially used in the food industry, too. PET has the recycling code 01.

PET is polar, by this means there are generated strong intramolecular forces. The molecule is in addition structured as a linear molecule without any cross linkings. Either property is a precondition for semi-crystalline areas and fibres. By reason of these areas, an elevated fracture strength and a dimensional stability are obtained at a temperature higher than 80° C. The impact resistance is, however, inferior, the gliding and wearing behaviour is good.
The glass transition temperature is approximately 80° C. PET passes on to the crystalline state (C-PET) at about 140° C. The elementary cell is triclinic {a = 4,56 nm, b = 5,94 nm, c = 10,75 nm, α = 98,5°, β = 118°, γ = 112°}. The density of amorphous PET (A-PET) amounts to 1,33–1,35 g/cm³ and that of semi-crystalline C-PET to 1,38–1,40 g/cm3. In comparison to C-PET, A-PET possesses a fairly inferior stiffness and rigidity, but a higher impact resistance. The density of the crystalline areas depends upon the duration and the temperature of the solid-state polycondensation which is carried through in order to obtain higher-molecular PET qualities by default. The crystallization degree hardly exceeds 70 %. The melting temperature is between 235 and 260 ° C (dependant on the crystallization degree and on the polymerization degree.

The manufacturing of PET is predominantly based on mineral oil, but also on petroleum gas. The monomers out of which PET is produced are terephtalic acid (1,4-benzene-di-carboxylic acid) and ethylene glycol (1,2-di-hydro-ethane, ethane-1,2-di-ol). The large-scale manufacturing is partially still performed through transesterification of dimethyl terephthalate with ethanediol. Since this is a equilibrium reaction, an excess of ethanediol is used which is again distilled off by the reaction guidance in order to influence the equilibrium in a favourable way. The melt-phase polycondensation does not result in sufficiently high molar masses (within technically reasonable periods). Therefore, PET qualities for bottles and industrial yarn (e.g. Diolen, Trevira) are further condensed (SSP – solid-state polycondensation). Ring-opening reactions out of oligomers are likewise possible by producing precipitate and quickly enabling high molar masses of more than 100,000 g/mol to be achieved. These procedures are, however, still being developed. In recent procedures, ethanediol is directly esterificated with terephtalic acid.

When being processed, PET is preferred in semi-crystalline shape, but it, however, crystallises spontaneously only very slowly for which reason a nucleation agent has to be added in order to obtain a quick crystallization.

Unprecedentedly, PET has been established among the polymers as globally used plastic material having a high potential of development up to bio-PET on the basis of renewable raw materials. Following the environmental idea, PET has replaced PVC in many fields.

In the development phase, we readily give you advice on finding the required specification which we will be glad to optimise by means of samples.
On request, we carry through product training courses for your staff.
An important element of our enterprise policy is to inform our customers regularly on current and important topics in the markets.
We underwrite the product safety by a permanent audit mode.
State-of-the-art technical and communications systems
support the whole team.
For instance: Optical film web control system, digital all-over traceability, Digital Roll Data Collection (RDH), Integrated Management System (IMS), external product testing, management system for food safety, IFS logistics.
Our films are manufactured under hygienically unobjectionable conditions on state-of-the-art installations.
The production is controlled digitally and monitored by a management team who are supported by the latest
information technology.

Core of our internal logistics is a pallet transport system across the buildings linking the machine centres among themselves as well as the shipping area with the central pallet storage area among each other.
Highly motivated and qualified teams organise complex processes, using modern data processing, storage and conveying technology. We always keep updated through logistics-specific training courses.
HAGNER PET Future Films Polylux®
enjoy high confidence
on account of their excellent
properties in all packaging markets
where environmental safety,
transparency, stableness, good
barrier properties, printability,
etc. are required.

It is not the packaging, but
your product that is put forward
and presented expressively and
protected in the best manner.

Good operating characteristics
and high cycle rates allow
the processing to work economically
on all well-established FFS lines
and thermoforming installations.

Unprecedentedly among the polymers,
PET has been established as a
globally used plastic material
having a high potential for
development up to BioPet on the
basis of renewable raw materials.
PET Films Polylux ® on the roll and as sheets • Composite films on the roll